The programme of psycho-social rehabilitation of Georgian IDPs from Abkhasia and South Ossetia is being implemented by the Foundation for the Development of Human Resources with the financial support of the Norvegian Refugee Council. Rehabilitation was required for 4000 IDPs. Four types of stresses influencing the difficulties of the lives of IDPs were revealed: 1) everyday life stresses which are associated with economic crisis and the frustration of biological needs and the safety needs, 2) stress of adaptation associated with the necessity of adjustment to the new conditions of life, 3) stress of uncertainty associated with the unpredictable future and undetermined social status, 4) PTSD according to DSMR-4, low levels of self-respect and fear of identity loss. The strategy of psycho-social rehabilitation includes: 1) training for acknowledgement of "here and now" problems and their resolution (in order to overcome stress of adaptation), 3) cognitive restructuring of desirable future images (in order to reduce the stress of uncertainly), 4) re-living of the traumatic experience by a client in a dissociated state and the utilization of meditative trance states (in order to overcome PTSD symptoms).
Javakhishvili, Darejan; Sarjveladze, Nato & Makhashvili, Nino
The Center for psycho-social rehabilitation of IDPs attached to the Foundation for the Development of Human Resources was engaged in the psycho-social rehabilitation of IDPs in Georgia. These activities were supported financially by the Norwegian Refugee Council. The rehabilitation work with children and adolescents revealed that the main problems are as follows: the feeling of being unprotected and helpless; the frustration arising from the need for self-respect and self-identity; the feeling of victimization which is expressed by means of identification with a victim or with an aggressor as compensation; paraautistic disorders. Hence, psycho-social rehabilitation of child IDPs should work at: strengthening the feeling of being protected, self-respect and self-identity; overcoming rigid stereotypes and "victim-aggressor" styles of interpersonal relations; promoting the processes of openness, self-expression and self-realization.
Charkviani, David &
A multifactorial social-psychological study of Georgian IDPs from Abkhasia and South Ossetia was carried out with the financial support of the Norwegian Refugee Council. The investigation studied 750 IDPs. We were interested in the following attitudes to the social institutions of Georgia, to personal past, present and future, to representatives of other nationalities and ethnic groups; IDPs' life expectation, self-esteem and life planning, the local population's attitudes to the IDPs. The results of the investigation are as follows: IDPs feel a deep isolation from their new social environment, in fact they do not participate in the institutional life of the society; they consider themselves as victims of discrimination and segregation; they are unsatisfied by the present and they are "suspiciously" optimistic about their future. IDPs try to compensate for this psychological discomfort by the mechanisms of high self-esteem and ethnic self-stereotype and at the same time by discrimination against their rivals (IDPs asses Abkhasians, Ossetians and Armenians negatively, Russians and Chechens - ambivalently). The tendency towards not taking responsibility for what is going on and the high retrospective evaluation of the past were also demonstrated. The local population's attitude to the IDPs is negative.
Sarjveladze, N., Sarjveladze,
The programme of psycho-social rehabilitation of Georgian IDPs from Abkhazia and South Ossetia is being implemented by the FDHR with the financial support of the Norwegian Refugee Council (1995-1997). Rehabilitation was required for 4000 people of the IDPs community in the different regions of Georgia. The protracted character of the Georgian-Abkhazian and Georgian-Ossetian conflict caused new problems in Georgia. The state is unable to solve the social problems of 300000 IDPs. Increase in the new generation aggravated every-day life problems, the problem of their integration with the local society is still acute. Among the IDPs latent tension with the locals becomes more and more intensive. The majority of IDPs experience the feeling of being isolated from society. At the same time the informative media manipulates with the help of the "enemy image". The majority of IDPs wishes to go back and they are aware of the necessity of contacts with the confronting party. Both IDPs and a part of Abkhazian and Ossetian population express readiness to be involved in the folk diplomacy. However, a threat exists of developing the latent phase of PTSD into a manifested one and transmitting it to the younger generation. The victimisation is being widely propagated within society and even in kindergarten. The protracted conflict and uncertain future caused the development of so-called passive mass-middle-aged individuals, the problem of their employment or involvement into rehabilitation being extremely acute. At this stage the societal rehabilitation of IDPs in Georgia covers the following psycho-social programs which are being carried out by FDHR. The programs aimed at:
Four types of stress influencing the difficult lives of IDPs were revealed, these included:
The strategy of psycho-social rehabilitation includes:
1. Sarjveladze, N. (1997): Stress disorders among Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and their Psycho-Social Rehabilitation. Fifth European Congress of Psychology, Dublin, p.30
2. Volkan, V., D. (1996): Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ancient Fuel of a Modern Infemo. Mind and Human Interaction. 3, p.110-127
Javakhishvili D., Sarjveladze
N., Makhashvili N., Beberashvili Z.
Since 1995 the FDHR has been running a project financially
supported by the Norwegian Refugee Council: Psycho-social rehabilitation of Internally
Displaced Persons (IDPs) from Abkhasia and South Ossetia.
1. Rogers, R. R. (1991). Intergenerational Transmission of Historical Enmity, in V. Volkan et al., eds, The Psychodynamics of International Relationships, Vol. II, Unofficial Diplomacy at Work, Lexington Books, Lexington, Massachusetts.
2. Volkan, V. D. (1991). Psychological process in unofficial diplomacy meeting, in V. Volkan et al., eds, The Psychodynamics of International Relationships, Unofficial Diplomacy at Work, Lexington Books, Lexington, Massachusetts.
3. Wynne, E. (1989). Storytelling in therapy and counselling. The national Storytelling Journal, Winter: 3-6.
Beberashvili Z., Makhashvili
N., Sarjveladze N., Javakhishvili D.
Since 1995 the FDHR has been running a project
"Psycho-social rehabilitation of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Georgia"
supported by the Norwegian Refugee Council.
1. The IDPs do not experience the feeling of belonging with regard to the new social environment. They still experience difficulty in identifying themselves with the social environment.
2. The fear of loosing ones own identity. The people, who have lost home, property, job and position, all that is associated with their identity, are now facing a danger of loosing their self respect as well.
3. The IDPs feel totally insecure, they are uncertain about their present and future.
These factors put the IDPs in the position of a
victim. Victimisation with the IDPs is, on the one hand, a symbol of new values,
defence against the loss of ones own identity, and, on the other hand, is a symbol
of opposition against the values of the strange environment. The first case
represents a search for secondary gains and the latter implies the creation of enemy
image, where an enemy is not only the real confronting side, but also the new social
environment. This might result in the revengeful attitude and increased aggression, in the
development of passive life disposition. Stemming from the above, the victimisation
phenomenon requires especial attention, since it involves a negative behaviour style and a
danger of reinforcing destructive life position in the society as well as the transmission
of this position to future generations.
1. In the areas densely populated with IDPs self-help and employment promoting training groups were set up, where the IDPs acquired the skills related to self-help, self-management, positive problem solving, management of small business and business relations, conflict management. Relationships developed on a parity basis, their acceptance and recognition from the perspective of an active, independent person, increased the feeling in the IDPs of belonging to the new socium and helped to overcome estrangement from the society. The engagement in an active process and employment prospects helped the IDPs to acquire confidence in their ability to solve ones own problems, to strengthen their self and fostered their personal growth. All this freed them from feelings of insecurity and the ambiguity related to the future.
2. Priority directions with children were the following: development of creative potential, improvement of communication skills, conflict management, development of tolerance, creative labour, etc. The listed measures, in particular creative labour and self-expression, reinforced in the young generation self-confidence, feelings of personal worth and the feeling of uniqueness of ones own personality. Acceptance and recognition of other peoples subjective reality as well as the improvement of communication skills helped the integration of children into the community of newly acquired friends. All this reinforced the feeling of security and facilitated their personal growth and harmonious development.
1. John E. Mack. (1991). The Psychodynamics of Victimization among National Groups in Conflict, in V. Volkan et al., eds, The Psychodynamics of International Relationships, Vol. II, Unofficial Diplomacy at Work, Lexington Books, Lexington, Massachusetts.
2. Howell, W. N. (1993). Tragedy, trauma and triumph: Reclaiming integrity and initiative from victimization. Mind and Human Interaction, 4: 111-119.
3. Tajfel, H.(1982). Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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